Have you ever found yourself doing something like this in some code you’ve been writing?

String xml = "<adocument><anelement>" + someproperty + "</anelement><anotherelement>" 
                 + anotherproperty + "</anotherelement></adocument>";


I’m a lazy developer. And I know from experience that at some point, I’m going to have to change this embedded xml generating pile of crap. Someone will ask me to add an element, or remove an element, or add a namespace, or change the formatting, or …… Ugh! Maintaining this kind of code is what makes maintenance programmers go insane….

Fortunately, I’ve spent enough time doing maintenance development that I know that a little time spent upfront will save a lot of time and frustration down the road and I try to avoid naive solutions like the above in favor of something that appeals to my laziness.

One simple, yet effective, solution to the above problem is to use Velocity. Velocity is a powerful scripting language and makes short work of the simple example above. The main advantage is that the template is just text and text is easy to maintain.

Here’s how we’d go about refactoring the above solution…

First, I’d create a velocity template adocument.vm with the following content:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Then, I’d configure my velocity engine in my spring context:

    <bean id="velocityEngine" class="org.springframework.ui.velocity.VelocityEngineFactoryBean">
      <property name="velocityProperties">

The properties tell Velocity how to find the template files when I give it the template file path. I’ve specified that I want Velocity to use the ClasspathResourceLoader to find my templates, which are likely packaged up inside my application archive (war, jar).

Now, I just wire up the class that is generating the xml to the engine:

private VelocityEngine engine;

public void setVelocityEngine(VelocityEngine engine)
    this.engine = engine;
<property name="velocityEngine" ref="velocityEngine"/>

And tell it where the template is:

String templateFile;

public void setTemplateFile(String file)
    this.templateFile = file;
<property name="templateFile" value="myTemplatesDirectory/adocument.vm"/>

myTemplatesDirectory should be a directory in your classpath (packaged in your jar?) that contains your template.

Then, I change how I’m generating the xml:

Map model = new HashMap();
model.put("someproperty", someproperty);
model.put("anotherproperty", anotherproperty);
String xml = VelocityEngineUtils.mergeTemplateIntoString(velocityEngine, templateFile, model);

Note that this solution still violates the open closed principle but that can be solved by making the generation code a reuseable module and having the client pass in the variables:

public String generateContent(Map model, String template)
    return VelocityEngineUtils.mergeTemplateIntoString(velocityEngine, template, model);

You may still need to update how the model is generated if the view needs to change (e.g. to add a new field) but you won’t have to muck around with any of the software to make simple textual changes to the xml. That’s a solution that appeals to my laziness.

It should be obvious to some of you that this refactoring is essentially a simple MVC solution. Velocity can be, and frequently is, used in place of solutions like jsp to generate views. However, as shown above, it is a powerful tool in your toolbox that can easily be used in your middleware for generating content that could, for instance, become the payload of a JMS message.